Shish Kabobs or Kababs are popular grilled baked and barbecued dishes made using pieces of seasoned meat and vegetables on skewers and served with condiments and sauces.
What makes the kabobs perfect, is the marinade used to tenderize and add flavour to the meat and vegetables, and the sauces which are used as a dressing when serving the cooked kabobs.
Getting the correct marinade and using it properly is the key for successful preparation of these dishes. Vegetarian kabobs also benefit from being pre-soaked in marinade.
Learn the secrets of the perfect marinade recipes for Lamb, Beef, Pork, Chicken, Shrimp and how to use them properly. Also see a fabulous array of the best ever kabob sauces.
The acid in the marinade causes the meat tissue fibers to start to break down. This tenderizes the meat and allows more liquid to be absorbed and penetrate further into the meat. This produces a product that is more tender and juicier when cooked. Too much acid can made the meat mushy and less tasty. A good marinade has the right balance of acid, spice and oil. The spice adds flavor that penetrates into the meat and the oil adds to the juicy and moist taste of the meat.
A good marinade performs multiple functions simultaneously. But getting the right balance for the components is essential. Be careful to not overdo it , or swamp the flavor of the meat with an overpowering marinade.
One trick is not to leave excess marinade on the meat as it can burn and ruin the taste. The marinade is meant to penetrate, not to be a surface rub or coating.
Peppers, chilies and onions should be used sparingly. Worcestershire and soy sauces add salty taste and flavor, when used sparingly. A lot of marinades include ginger, which again can ruin fish and molluscs when too much ginger is used
Knowing how long to marinate is also important - neither too little or too long. Take account of the texture of the meat or vegetables you are marinating. Generally, fish and seafood needs much less time than chicken. The denser meats such as beef, pork and lamb need longer times. It also depends on the thickness of the meat pieces. Remember that the flavor enhancement by the marinade should be subtle and complement the flavor of the food.
Marinating is not without hazards and being aware of the risk of contamination is important. Raw red meat, fish, shellfish, and particularly chicken and ground beef can contain harmful bacteria which may infect and multiply in the marinade. It is important to realize this and to regard all meat and the marinade in which it is put as potentially contaminated.
The main tips are:
Adding an acid into the marinades for both meats and vegetables tenderizes and allows the liquid to be absorbed into the food items. Wines, vinegars, fruit juices, wine vinegars, lemon and other citrus juices do the job as well as adding specific flavors. Yogurts and other dairy products are used in many Indian marinade recipes such as tandoori. Dairy products also help to tone down the ‘gamey flavor’ of wild game. Bourbon, whiskey and other spirits can be used sparingly in combination with vinegars and fruit juices.
Be careful because adding too much salt tends to dry foods, especially meats and fish, certainly if marinated too long. Wine combined with salt makes a good meat marinade. Too much soy sauce can also kill the taste especially with fish and other seafood.
Canola oil, safflower, olive, corn, peanut and soy oils are good choices for marinades. Some oils have neutral tastes such as grape seed oil, rice bran. Some have added a strong flavoring affect, such as sesame, walnut and various types of chilli flavoured oils. Oils depend on acids to be effective and allow the oil and flavours to penetrate. Too much oil can swamp the meat and so keep the oil content to less than 20-25% of the volume.
Natural Tenderizing Enzymes
Papain is a protein-digesting enzyme that occurs in papaya and some other plants that softens and tenderizes meat protein in this case. Prune juice acts the same way. Other food with these properties are Pineapple, Figs, Ginger, Kiwifruit, Mango. Be careful as these enzymes are powerful and so watch the time. Most of the commercial powdered meat tenderizers contain enzymes.
Herbs Spices and other Flavors
The variety is up to you. Oregano, sage, rosemary, thyme work well as well as fresh basil and coriander. Common spices are peppers, anise, cinnamon, garlic, onion, coriander, ginger, cumin, turmeric and lemongrass, lemon, orange, grapefruit, lime and black pepper go well with many herbs and spices.
Soy sauce provides both acid and salt , but use it sparingly.
Worcestershire is a great peppery and spicy sauce for marinades. Its ingredients include vinegar, corn syrup, anchovies, molasses, spices, pepper and other flavors. It too should be used sparingly
A dry rub is a made from crushed herbs and spices, including as pepper, chili paprika, garlic, thyme, basil, rosemary, oregano . The famous Dukkah dry rub includes nuts. Avoid dry rubs that contains sugar as it tends to burn when the meat is cooked. Rubs are not really marinades as the flavor stays on the outside and does not penetrate into the meat.
Wet rubs are very similar to dry rubs, but they are wet and more like a marinade, but generally thicker. They work well on strong flavored meats.
Brining involves soaking the meat in a moderately strong salty solution for a several hours to one or two days. The brine solution can include a wide range of ingredients, such as garlic, peppercorns, beer, maple syrup, and many other things.
How long to marinate
How to cook meat that has been marinated
Place all ingredients, apart from green onions) into a blender (except the green onions, if using add them in after blending). Blend for about 25- 40 seconds (no need to over do it). Add the spring onions. This recipe provides 3-1/2 cups of marinade. Marinate the lamb, beef or pork for 6-24 hours, and chicken up to 3-8 hours, in the refrigerator.
Combine all the ingredients in a small bowl, add the lamb pieces. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and place in the refrigerator for 2-4 hours. Stir once or twice to ensure even marinating.
Heat the canola oil in a large saucepan using medium heat. Sauté the onions until tender and beginning to brown (about 2 to 4 minutes). Add the jalapeno and garlic and cook while stirring for about 30-45 seconds. Add the bourbon, turn-up the heat to high and heat to boiling. Simmer vigorously for about 5 minutes until most of the liquid has evaporated. Stir in the brown sugar, molasses, blueberries, vinegar, ketchup and allspice. Reduce the heat and simmer gently, while stirring occasionally, until the sauce thickens (about 20-30) minutes.
2 teaspoons fresh ginger, finely chopped
1 garlic clove, chopped finely
2 scallions, chopped (or 2 green or spring onions)
3 tablespoons soy sauce
1/4 cup olive oil
4 salmon fillets, steaks (or other firm fish cut into pieces after marinating)
Mix all the ingredients in a bowl or bag, add the fish and marinate for 45-60 minutes in the refrigerator (no longer). Grill, bake or grill the fish for about 4 minutes per side, or cut into pieces for the kabobs.
Put all the marinade ingredients into a large resealable plastic bag. Seal, then shake to mix. Add the pork, shake, seal, and refrigerate for about 6 - 12 hours.
Mix all the ingredients in a small bowl. Season with salt and pepper.
In a small bowl, combine the oil, Worcestershire sauce, soy sauce, wine vinegar and the lemon juice. Mix in the mustard powder, pepper, salt and parsley.
Combine all ingredients and mix well. Marinade the cut vegetables for the kabobs for 3 - 4 hours